Consolidation of His Own Position:
As Ghaiasuddin Tughluq had founded a new dynasty, it was essential for him to seek the cooperation and support of Amirs and nobles and provincial governors. With this aim in view he dealt very liberally with the Khalji nobles and others.
Like a prudent politician he did not take any staunch action against those who were the supporters of Khusrau Shah and let them remain their old officers. Only those were punished or removed from services who were party in the murder of Mubarak Shah but he tried to recover the money from those whose faithfulness was purchased by Khusrau Shah by distributing wealth. He got success in realizing the amount in many cases but some of them, specially Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliy, refused to refund the money s he had already spent the amount on the welfare of the people.
The Sultan appointed his supporters on high and lucrative posts and bestowed titles upon them. He entitled his elder son, Juna Khan, as Ulugh Khan and declared him as successor. He conferred the title of Kishlu Khan on his second son, Bahram Khan, and appointed him Governor of Multan and Sind. Malik Shadi, his son-in-law, was appointed the Wazir of Delhi Sultanate and many others were given titles and rewards after his accession to the throne of Delhi. Thus he gained the favour, both of his supporters and opponents by his liberal policy.
Ghiyasuddin ’s Government:
In the words of Dr. Ishwari Prasad, “No structural changes were made in the constitution of government; no new organizations were undertaken as they were under his illustrious son Muhammad Taghluq. But his administration was based upon the principles of justice and moderation, and in the enforcement of his regulations he was guided by his desire to advance the public weal.”
Ghiasuddin’s revenue policy illustrates his statesmanship more than anything else he did. He wisely disallowed the system of farming which had long been in vogue under the feudal conditions of early Muslim rule. The rapacious farmers of revenue were not even permitted to approach to Diwan-i-Wizarat.
Through the assessment of Alauddin remained unaltered, the excess of revenue collectors were brought under control. The Amirs and Maliks were not allowed to take as their fee more than one-fifteenth of the revenue of perquisite not exceeding 5 to 10 per thousand. Even where a slight enhancement of revenue was justified, Barani tells us, “The Khiraj was to increase gradually over a number of years and not all at once for by doing so, the country suffers and the path of progress is blocked.” We do not come across such tender consideration for the country until the days of Sher Shah Sur two centuries later.
“The Jagirdars and Hakims were asked to be careful in the realization of Khiraj so that the Khuts and Muqaddams may not impose any additional burden upon the people besides the State’s dues. Large remissions of revenue were made in times of drought and the defaulters were treated with great generosity.
No man was to be held in bondage for the sake of money and every facility was provided by the State to enable the people to meet their obligation without any discomfort or vexation.
The same minute attention was bestowed by the Sultan on all departments of the State. A system of poor relief was organized, and the judicial and policy arrangements were so efficiently managed that in the trite phraseology of the Muslim chroniclers, “the wolf dared not seize upon the lamb, and the lion and the deer drank at one stream.”
An old veteran himself, Ghiasuddin was affable towards the meanest soldiers in the army and eminently succeeded in improving its morale and efficiency. The system of Alauddin according to which horses were brnded and identified in a detailed muster roll was continued, to avoid chicanery such as Balban had encountered among the Punjab fief holders; and a most efficient postal services was restored.
Despite his easy success and sudden elevation to imperal authority, Ghazi Malik retained his old simplicity and self-discipline in life. Through stern like Balban and Alauddin, there was in all he did, a genuine touch of humaneness. A man of action schooled in war though he was, he could still patronize great poets like Amir Khusrau, Warned of the fate of Alauddin Khalji and Mubarak Shah, he never indulged in any sensual pleasures and shrank instinctively from ‘handsome beardless boys’ – the vice of his age.
Masterful and puritanical ‘Ghiasuddin avoided the tyranny as well as the pomp and pageantry of Balban and Aurangzeb in public life and state functions. ‘During his brief reign he did much to wipe out the disgrace which had befallen the empire of Delhi, to reorganize the administration which had fallen out of gear and to re-establish the power and prestige of the monarchy which had been reduced to a nullity during the Khusruite regime.”