23 Short Questions with Answers on “South India and the Cholas” for Class IX Students (History and Civics ):
Q1. Name the important states that emerged in south India in the post Gupta period.
Ans: Important states in south India in the post Gupta period were those of the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas and Cheras.
Q2. What are the archaeological sources that shed light on the history of south India?
Ans: Literary sources like the Ramayana, the author of Periplus and the geographer Ptolemy give details of places, ports and markets of the south. Among archaeological sources there are the inscriptions, edicts of Ashoka as well as temples which give us important information on the history of south India.
Q3. Where did the Cholas rule initially?
Ans: The Cholas initially ruled over Tamilnad, the region around modern Tanjore.
Q4. Whom did the Cholas overthrow to emerge as the dominant power in south India?
Ans: The Cholas overthrew the Pandyas to emerge as the dominant power in south India.
Q5. Who was the founder of the later Chola dynasty?
Ans: Vijayalaya was the founder of the later Chola dynasty.
Q6. Who adopted the title of Maduraikonda and why?
Ans: Vijayalaya adopted the title of Maduraikonda to commemorate his victory over the land of the Pandyas as well as their capital Madurai.
Q7. Name the ruler who made Cholas a force to reckon with in south India.
Ans: Rajaraja I made the Cholas a force to reckon with in south India.
Q8. Why did Rajaraja I have a strong navy?
Ans: Rajaraja I was aware of the importance of the sea and asserting his strength along the coasts of south India. Therefore, he built up a powerful navy and made full use of it.
Q9. Who succeeded Rajaraja I and why did he adopt the title of Gangaikonda?
Ans: Rajaraja I was succeeded by his son Rajendra Chola who was a great ruler. His army marched through Orissa and reached the banks of the Ganga. To commemorate his northern campaign, he assumed the title of Gangaikonda.
Q10. State in brief the administrative divisions of the provinces.
Ans: The empire was divided into a number of provinces known as ‘mandalams’. Each of the provinces was subdivided into ‘kottams’ or ‘valanadus’. Each division or valanadu was divided into a union of villages or ‘kurrams’ and the villages were called ‘gramam’.
Q11. What was the assembly in the village called? What was its function?
Ans: The assembly in the village was called ‘ur’. It was a congregation of local residents who met to discuss matters without formal rules or procedure.
Q12. What were the sources of revenue under the Cholas?
Ans: Tax on land and trade were the main sources of revenue for the Chola rulers.
Q13. What do you understand by guilds? What was their function?
Ans: Guilds were associations formed by trading merchants to safeguard their trade. The merchant guilds brought goods at the place of manufacture and distributed them through an elaborate network.
Q14. What was an agrahara settlement?
Ans: An agrahara village was one which was predominantly inhabited by the Brahmanas, who occupied a very important position in the Chola society.
Q15. Who was the ruler to realize the importance of constructing dams for agricultural purpose?
Ans: Parantaka was the ruler to realize the importance of constructing dams for agricultural purpose.
Q16. What is the most remarkable achievement of Rajendra I?
Ans: The most remarkable achievement of Rajendra I was the digging up of an artificial lake near his capital, Gangaikondacholapuram, which was filled up with water from the Kolerun and Vellar rivers.
Q17. How did the temple act as the seat of education?
Ans: Under the Cholas, the temples of south India emerged as the spiritual, cultural, social, economic and educational centres in the life of the community. The temples functioned as centres of learning where school was held in the temple courtyard. Subjects like philosophy, grammar, literature and ethics were taught.
Q18. What is the other name for Brihadeshwara temple? When was it built and by whom?
Ans: The other name of Brihadeshwara temple was Rajeshwara temple. This temple was built by Rajaraja the Great around AD 1009 and was dedicated to lord Shiva.
Q19. Name the most important Tamil scholar. What are his two important literary works?
Ans: Kamban was the most important Tamil scholar. ‘Satakoparandadi’ and ‘Erulupadu’ are his two great works.
Q20. Name the poet who was patronized by Kulottunga.
Ans: Ottakuttan was patronized by Kulottunga.
Q21. Name the Telugu poet who translated the Mahabharata.
Ans: Nannaiah, the Telugu poet translated the Mahabharata.
Q22. Who are known as the three gems of Kannada poetry?
Ans: Pampa, Ponna and Ranna are known as the three gems of Kannada poetry.
Q23. Who translated Kamban’s Ramayana into Malayalam?
Ans: Ramanujam Ezuthachan translated Kamban’s Ramayana into Malayalam.