The process of TQM in education is essentially based on Systems Approach with a focus on the ‘whole’ institutional programme rather than on individual components of an institution or its programmes. The following flowchart describes the process of TQM in education.
These steps incorporate many activities which are as follows:
(a) Developing a profile of students and the immediate community in terms of their demands, economic, cultural, social and political conditions, technological changes, age group, life styles, migration rates, demand for education and educational level of community members.
(b) Documenting students’ intellectual, emotional, physical, social and moral development.
(c) Formulating a statement of the institutions’ mission and beliefs.
(d) Identifying desirable student-outcomes: cognitive, affective and psycho-motor
(e) Analyzing existing level of student performance and development.
(f) Analyzing curricular and co-curricular practices.
(g) Formulating institutional improvement and development plans.
(h) Implementing, monitoring and evaluating institutional improvement and development plans.
Successful TQM programmes necessitate consensus for change on the part of institution, parents, teachers and the community. This consensus should be concerning the values and goals of the institution its programmes, policies and practices expected outcomes and the strategies for change.
Continuous efforts towards improvement of quality should be based on data obtained from various sources and using diverse tools and techniques of obtaining feedback. Quality is not just another process but a management system and a structured process aimed at excellence.
Quality of education is aimed at bridging the gap between actual and desired levels of educational outcomes. Very often it is found that people, in the beginning are reluctant to accept the concepts of quality and customers.
This could be overcome by first ascertaining the attitude of staff towards quality improvement programmes and innovations through a survey. If the staff is logically and tactfully convinced about the applicability of the concepts of quality and customers to the system of education, they gradually accept these concepts.
This is sometimes followed by a feeling of insecurity among the staff whereby they attempt to adopt their own way of doing their work so as to ensure a control over their environment.
If the leader of the group is able to capitalize on the attitudes of individuals and spread awareness concerning quality and customer orientation, people will gradually learn to support quality improvement programmes whole-heartedly and involve themselves in such programmes.
Once commitment towards quality improvement is developed, team-building is easier which ultimately facilitates quality transformation. However, the leader of the group must ensure that the process of quality improvement does not become dependent on any specific individual or a group of individuals.
Such programmes should be the responsibility of the entire institution and other stakeholders so as to ensure its sustainability. This requires developing a quality culture.
Besides, the emphasis should be on finding solutions rather than faults; the emphasis should be on quality rather than quantity, the emphasis should be on preventing drop-outs and stagnation proactively rather than waking up after the results of the institution deteriorate.
The management of the institution should also be aware of the problems faced by staff and students and provide financial, material, academic and emotional support whenever necessary.