Taking over the thread from McIntosh, Robinson (1970) worked out the above said four categories of travel motivations and further classified them into seven groups. According to Robinson, the main purposes of people undertaking travel or tourism are as follows:
1. Relaxation and Refreshment of Body and Mind:
This category of tourism motivations is the aftermath of increasing industrialization, growing urbanization, pressures, pushes and pulls of modern life. To overcome these, one necessitates rest and relaxation, undergoing enlivenment of mind and body every so often.
The nature and the design in which relaxation, recreation or pleasure is sought vary with the individual. Relaxation and refreshment to some degree, whatever the form of holiday, are the predominant motivations of the holiday maker looking for escape from the pressures of everyday life.
Tourism, thus, becomes instrumental in breathing new life or rejuvenating an individual’s moral, ethical health and re-establishing the passionate poise.
Health is one of the critical objects for most of the people to practice travel or tourism (Health Tourism). Since primeval times, people have been visiting spas and other watering places to take and bathe in medicinal waters or undergo specialized medical treatments.
Several spas and climes the world over are sought- after for their curative aspects and entice many visitors. This has, indeed, contributed a lot in the development of ‘Health Resorts’ in many parts of the world.
Lively involvement in a range of sporting activities as a means of recreation has evolved into one of the key motivations of modern tourism. Sports involving physical activities such as skiing, sailing, underwater swimming, surfing, mountaineering and trekking, etc. which offset and provide relief from the inertia and tedium of the daily working life, are for large number of people the raison d’etre of holiday.
Robinson reiterates Mcintosh’s interpretation that the motivation for satisfying an individual’s need for pleasure, good time and enthusiasm is “perhaps, the most predominant of all individual travel motivations” (Pleasure Tourism).
A person’s need for pleasure of the kind mentioned is very deep-rooted and “travel has the unique quality of being able to satisfy this desire. While pleasure and romance (associated with the holiday) are primary attributes of the holiday travel experience, they are also very strong motivators”.
4. Curiosity and Culture:
People are motivated by curiosity about other people, countries and their culture i.e., an urge to seek new experiences (Cultural Tourism). “The increased interest shown by many in art, architecture, music, literature, dance, folklore, sports and pastimes of other people’s culture or in archaeological or historical remains and monuments is but another aspect of curiosity, which has been stimulated by more education”.
For this class of people, international sports or mega events, special festivals and celebrations make up an outstanding pull.
5. Interpersonal Reasons:
The category of interpersonal motivations is linked to people’s desire to visit their relatives, friends, families and ancestral homelands (Ethnic Tourism) or to meet new people and seek new alliances and intimacies. The motivation also finds manifestation in the individual’s desire associated with an escape from his normal environment and surroundings.
6. Spiritual Purposes:
Large sections of people in different parts of the world are also motivated to travel as a result of spiritual motives that is, visiting shrines, holy places and making pilgrimages to the sacred religious sites (Pilgrimage Tourism and Spiritual Tourism). The motivation is indicative of a way to discover oneself and may1 represent an irresistible act of faith, or an interest in the holy places.
7. Professional or Business Reasons:
Professional and business concerns also prove to be a strong motivation for many to travel (Business Tourism), often combining both the business activities and pleasure. On the whole, the basic motive for such a travel is personal development, enhancement of standing and status, and setting up and strengthening of contacts.
Conventions, conferences and professional/business meetings allure people from their respective lines of work and walks of life atone forum to interact and/or transact with each other.