1. Explain any five important causes of Poverty in India.
(i) Destruction of traditional handicrafts industries by the colonial government of British.
(ii) Low growth rate of incomes accompanied by high growth rate of population resulted in very low per Capita Income.
(iii) The impact of the Green revolution was restricted to only few states and crops.
(iv) Unequal distribution of agricultural land resulted in rural poverty.
(v) Land reform measures were not implemented effectively.
(vi) Other socio-cultural and economic factors include lack of education, high rates of interest on rural credit by private moneylenders, expenditure on ceremonies and rituals etc.
2. How is the poverty line is estimated in India? Explain.
(i) By Income or expenditure method.
(ii) A minimum level of basic requirements i,e., food, shelter, clothing are calculated.
(ii) These are then calculated in terms of money.
(iv) The poverty line is fixed for the year 2000 is Rs 328 per month for the rural and Rs 454 per month for the urban areas.
3. Why the results of the poverty alleviation programmes have been mixed up?
(i) Lack of proper implementation.
(ii) Lot of overlapping of schemes.
(iii) Over population.
4. How can poverty be reduced in future in India? Suggest any four points.
(i) Higher Economic growth.
(ii) Increasing stress on universal free primary education.
(iii) By declining population growth.
(iv) Increasing empowerment of the women and the economically weaker section of the society.
5. Mention the two planks on which the current anti – poverty strategy of the government is based. Why the poverty alleviation was programmes not successful in most parts of India?
The two planks on which the current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based are:
(i) Promotion of economic growth
(ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes. 2 The poverty alleviation programmes was not successful in most parts of India because:
(i) Lack of proper implementation and right targeting.
(ii) Lot of overlapping of schemes.
(iii) Benefits of the schemes did not reach the deserving poor.
6. What is poverty? What is NREGA and state its objectives?
Poverty is a situation in which one is unable to get even the minimum basic necessities of life such as food, clothing and shelter. A person is considered poor if he is not able to fulfill his basic needs.
NREGA is National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 which was passed in September 2005.
Its main objectives are:
Provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household.
One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.
If an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days, then he or she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
7. Explain any five poverty alleviation programmes launched by the government.
The government has introduced several anti-poverty measures. Some important ones are:
(i) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005:
The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural households in every district of India. If an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
(ii) National Food for Work Programme, 2004 (NFWP):
It was launched in 150 most backward districts of the country. It is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment. Foodgrains are provided free of cost to them.
(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) 1993:
The aim is to create self employment opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns. They are helped in small business and industries.
(iv) Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995:
The aim is to create self employment opportunities in rural areas. A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set up for the programme.
(v) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) 1999:
It aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line by organizing them into self help groups through bank credit and government subsidy.
(vi) Pradhanmantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) 2000:
It aims at basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.
8. (A) Define Poverty line.
(B) How is poverty line calculated in India?
(A) Poverty line is a demarcation line by this we can understand that who are able to fulfill their essential basic needs of life. 2Vfe
(i) Income and consumption approach
(ii) Quantity X prices.
(iii)Rural – Rs 328 / head
Urban – Rs 545 / head 2Mt
9. Give one most responsible factor responsible for the reduction of poverty in each of the following states:
(D) Andhra Pradesh
Increases in farm yields.
Human resources development
Land Reform measures
Well-organised public distribution system.
10. Give an account of inter-state disparities in poverty in India.
Although, the state level poverty has witnessed a secular decline from the levels of early 1970’s, the success rate in reducation of poverty varies from state to state.
(i) In 20 states and Union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average.
(ii) Poverty is still a serious problem in Odisha, Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh.
(iii) Orissa and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with population of 47 and 43 percent respectively below the poverty line.
(iv) Along with rural poverty, urban poverty is also high is Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
(v) In comparison, there has been significant decline in poverty in Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal.