Effect of Industrial Effluents on Soil and Water Pollution:
(i) Major industrial effluents:
(a) Sugar factory
(d) Textile and dye
(e) Paper mill
(ii) Effect on soil health:
(i) Chemical Properties: CEC, EC, pH, Heavy metal accumulation increase alkalinity, salinity and acidity of the soil.
(ii) Physical properties: Decrease the porosity and aeration, affect the structure and infiltration.
(iii) Biological properties: Reduce the population of microorganism and fauna of the soil.
(iv) Effect on water: Surface water pollution
Ground Water Pollution:
A. Surface water pollution by direct discharge of effluents.
i. Heavy metal accumulation.
iii. Reduce the productivity of the system.
B. Ground water pollution by infiltration:
i. Reduce the water quality by increasing salinity alkalinity and heavy metal.
ii. Reduce the plant productivity by affecting its metabolism.
iii. Not fit for drinking and irrigation.
iv. Major pollution fluoride, arsenic and nitrate.
Air Pollutants on Vegetation:
|Pollutant||Injury symptoms||Age of leaf affected the most||Leaf part affected|
|SO2||Chlorosis, inter-venial bleaching, tip and marginal necrosis; similar to drought, insect and chilling injury||Middle aged most sensitive; older least sensitive||Mesophyll cells|
|O3||Fleck, stipple, bleached and necrotic spotting, pigmentation; browning of conifer needle tips||Oldest most sensitive;||Palisade or spongy parenchyma in leaves|
|PAN||Glazing, silvering or bronzing of lower leaf surface||youngest most sensitive||Spongy parenchyma tissue|
|NO2||Irrigular, white or brown collapsed lesions on near leaf margin||Middle-aged leaves most sensitive||Mesophyll cells|
|HF||Tip and marginal leaf burning, dwarfing, leaf abscission, narrow brown-red band, separate necrotic tissues from green tissues; fungal, cold and high thermal injuries make similar marking||youngest leaves most sensitive cells||Epidermis and mesophyll|
|C2H4||Sepal withering, leaf abnormality; flower shedding, failure of proper leaf opening; excess water stress shows similar symptoms||Young leaves recover but older do not recover fully||All leaf part|
|Cl2||Intervenial bleaching, marginal and tip burning, leaf abscission||Mature leaves more sensitive||Epidermis and mesophyll|
|NH3||Cooked green appearance, becoming brown after drying||Mature leaves most sensitive||Complete leaf tissue|
|HC1||Leaf margin necrosis on broad leaves, acid type necrotic lesion, tip burning in fir||Oldest leaves most sensitive cells||Epidermis and mesophyll|
|H2S||Basal and marginal scorching||Youngest leaves most sensitive||All leaves|
|H2so4||Necrotic spots on upper (Acid rain) conducive for leaf damage||All plant leaf surface, high humidity more||All leaf parts tissue|
|Names of sensitive and tolerant plant species to various types of air pollution|
|Pollutant||Sensitive plants||Tolerant plants|
|Sulphur dioxide||Alfalfa, Barley, cotton, wheat, soybean, clover, rye, pine, safflower, apple, squash, tomato||Cantaloupe, celery, corn, oak|
|Hydrogen sulphide||Chinese apricot, gladiolus, grape, pine, sweet com, peach, plum.||Aspergus, cherry, cotton, pear, squash, strawberry, tomato, wheat|
|Peroxy acetyl nitrate||Annual bluegrass, lettuce, spinach, beans, beet, pepper, tobacco, clover, mint,||Broccoli, chrystanthemum, com, cotton, sorghum, cabbage, onion, cauliflower, carrot, cucumber, strawberry|
|Ozone||Oak, potato, radish, soybean, tobaco, tomato, white pine rice||Beet, geranium, gladiolus, maple, mint, pepper, rice|
|Ethylene||Cotton, cowpea, orchid, tomato||Grasses, lettuce|