Gandhi came back to active politics in 1928 and began to consolidate the nationalist ranks.
The circumstances, which led to the launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement, can be understood as follows:
1. The anti- Simon agitation
2. The revival of Revolutionary Terrorism,
3. The peasants’ unrest,
4. The economic depression of 1929 and resultant political and socio-economic tensions intensified anti-imperialist mood, making Civil Disobedience Movement inevitable.
5. Rejection of Nehru Report by the government.
6. Meanwhile, the demand of complete independence was gaining ground within the Congress.
The famous resolution declaring Purna Swaraj (full independence) was adopted on December 31, 1929 at the Lahore Session of the Congress. The Congress also announced the launching of a Civil Disobedience Movement.
7. Before starting Satyagraha, Gandhi made last attempt to avert it through an eleven point demand but this was rejected by Irwin.