The United Nations Organization (UNO) came into existence as a successor to the League of Nations. The latter was meant to be an international governing body which would assume the role of maintaining peace and order in the world. But it proved unequal to this task with the result that World War II broke out.
The UNO was formed to take its place. It was during the wartime allied conferences in Moscow, Cairo and Teheran, in 1943, that the idea of the UN was espoused in declarations signed at the time.
Representatives of many countries like France, China, the UK, the US and the Soviet Union met at the Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C., to further the plans, from August to October 1944. From these and later talks emerged proposals which explained the purposes of the organization, its membership and organs, as well as arrangements to maintain international peace and security, and international social and economic cooperation.
Membership in the UN is open to all peace- loving states which accept the obligations contained in the charter. The UN should also be convinced that they will be able to meet these obligations. Admission will be decided by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
The UN has five main organs. They are: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. The group of 77 at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations. It aims to promote its members’ economic interests. From the original 77 founding members, it has since increased its membership to 130. The UN is located in New York City.
It gets financing from assessed and voluntary contributions from member countries. The General Assembly is the chief deliberative assembly of the UN. The Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries. The ECOSOC helps the General Assembly in fostering international economic and social cooperation.
The UN Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, provides information and facilities required for meetings held by UN bodies. The International Court of Justice is in The Hague, Netherlands. UNESCO and WHO are a few of its working bodies. The UN tries to maintain peace in the world.
It regularly sends peacekeeping forces to war torn countries. Indian soldiers too are part of these forces. Elimination of poverty and fostering mutual understanding among the nations of the world are some of its main objectives. sWithout the UN, the world would definitely have been a more dangerous place than it is now.