Every state has a legislature consisting of the Governor and the Legislative Assembly.
Some states have the second chamber, called Legislative Council.
1. Legislative Council:
i. It exists in six states, viz; Bihar, J & K, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and U.P.
ii. Under Article 169, the Parliament by law, can provide for the creation of Legislative Council in a state or abolition if it exists, provided the Legislative Assembly of the state passes a resolution to that effect (by a majority of the total membership of the Assembly and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting).
iii. Its total members not to exceed 1/3 of Legislative Assembly.
iv. The total membership in no case is less than 40.
1/3 elected by Vidhan Sabha
1/3 elected by Local bodies
1/12 elected by graduates of three years standing
1/12 elected by teacher’s school & colleges
1/6 elected by Governor (also from cooperative)
Thus 5/6 elected indirectly elected 1/6 ruminated.
vi. To become, a member a person must be 30 years age.
2. Legislative Assembly:
i. It consists of not more than 500 or less than 60.
ii. Assembly of Mizoram and Goa has 40 members each, while Sikkim has 32 only.
iii. The member must be 25 years of age.
iv. Term of the Assembly is 5 year.
v. To be elected to Legislative Council or Legislative Assembly, a person must be an elector for any seat in Legislative Assembly in the state.
As regards disqualifications of members, the decision of Governor in consultation with the election commission shall be final.
Constitution provides for joint sitting for only one purpose at the state level: When the Governor addresses the legislature at the beginning of Budget session or immediately after the general election.
The Two House: A Comparison
Legislative Council does not enjoy equal Legislative powers with Legislative Assembly. It is a mere advisory chamber.
In the first journey of a bill it can interpose some delay i.e. 3 months. In second journey, the Council shall have no power to withhold the Bill for more than a month. In case of disagreement between two houses there is no provision of joint sitting.
Evaluation of State Politics in India:
The reality of contemporary state politics in India illustrates that despite being equal units of the Indian federation, there remains great variations in the political trends in all the states. Differences on account of history, needs, social milieu and geographical location have rendered great diversity in their political process.
In spite of centralized planning and aspiration of uniform development there remains wide regional disparity.
These factors have vibrant repercussions on politics in the state. They have placed the expectation of the people at a crucial juncture. The political leadership and institutional functioning cannot remain aloof from it.
Even the task of nation building and political development are showing different trends. The need of the hour is to rejuvenate the hitherto neglected local bodies, local forums, intelligential etc. to play a role in the political process.
This will do a lot in enlightening the citizenry and awakening their political consciousness. Democracy can be built and strengthened not only through institution but will and capacity to do so.