20 Short Questions with Answers on “Jainism and Buddhism” for Class IX Students (History and Civics ):
Q1. Mention any two causes that helped in the rise of Jainism and Buddhism.
Ans: The two causes that helped in the rise of Jainism and Buddhism are:
i. Supremacy of the priest and the caste system and
ii. Complex religion laden with rituals
Q2. Who were the tirthankaras? Name the last Jain tirthankara.
Ans: Tirthankaras were prophets. Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and the last Jain tirthankara.
Q3. When and where was Mahavira born? Where was Gautam Buddha born and to which clan did he belong?
Ans: Mahavira was born at Kundagrama, in the modern district of Vaishali in north Bihar, in 599 BC. Gautam Buddha was born in about 566 BC in the village of Lumbini near Kapilavastu. He belonged to the Sakya clan.
Q4. Why the followers of Mahavira were called Jains?
Ans: Mahavira came to be known as Jina or the conqueror of passions, hence his followers are known as Jainas or Jains.
Q5. Mention any two teachings of Mahavira.
Ans: The two teachings of Mahavira are:
i. Faith in Ahimsa
ii. Rejection of Vedic rites and rituals
Q6. What is triratna?
Ans: Triratna are the three jewels or three virtues practised by Jainas. They are being:
i. Right Faith
ii. Right Knowledge
iii. Right Action
Q7. What are Parvas and Angas?
Ans: The teachings of Mahavira are preserved in fourteen volumes or Parvas. Later on after the Pataliputra convention, his teachings were put in twelve volumes known as Angas.
Q8. Name the two sects of Jainism.
Ans: Digambaras (sky clad or those who wore no clothes) and Svetambaras (white-clad or those who wore white clothes) are the two sects of Jainism.
Q9. How did Jainism contribute to the growth of vernacular language?
Ans: Jains adopted Prakrit, the language of the common people to preach their doctrines and this gave rise to the growth of the Prakrit language and its literature.
Q10. Mention any one impact of Jainism on Indian society.
Ans: Jainism offered a challenge to Hinduism and opposed religious rites and animal sacrifices. This left an indelible mark on the Indian society.
Q11. What are the four noble sights and the four noble truths?
Ans: The four noble sights were the old man, the sick man, a corpse and an ascetic. The four noble truths are:
i. The world is full of sufferings,
ii. Suffering is caused by human desire,
iii. If desire is renounced sufferings will be removed
iv. Nirvana (salvation)
Q12. Where did Buddha deliver his first sermon?
Ans: Buddha gave his first sermon at the Deer Park near Sarnath.
Q13. What is Tripitaka?
Ans: Buddha’s teachings are divided into three Pitakas or baskets namely, Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Q14. Mention one difference between the Mahayana and Hinayana sects of Buddhism.
Ans: Hinayana Buddhism strictly followed the doctrines of Buddha and denied the existence of God, whereas, Mahayana Buddhism worshipped the images of Buddha and believed him to be an incarnation of God.
Q15. Mention one contribution of Buddhism to Indian culture.
Ans: As a result of Buddhism, Buddhist monasteries developed as great cultures of learning where scholars from all over the world came and studied. Nalanda and Vikramasila were residential universities where scriptures, logic, philosophy, astronomy and medicine were taught. This is one major contribution of Buddhism to Indian culture.
Q16. What are Jatakas?
Ans: Jatakas were Buddhist tales written in Pali. These were stories with morals.
Q17. What are chaityas and viharas? Mention two important features of any chaitya at Ajanta.
Ans: Chaityas are cave temples and viharas are monasteries.
i. The facade of a chaitya in Ajanta is decorated with sculptured images and the pillars of the cave are well proportioned with capitals and light enters the interior through a magnificent horse-shoe shaped window
ii. The fresco paintings on the walls and ceilings are known for their artistic value
Q18. Where is Karle? Mention one feature of chaitya at Karle.
Ans: Karle is in Pune. One of the most outstanding features of chaitya at Karle is the remarkable row of pillars inside the hall.
Q19. With what religion was the cave temple at Udaigiri associated?
Ans: Udaigiri cave temples were associated with Jain religion. Q20. Mention any two features of the Ashokan pillars. Ans: The two features of the Ashokan pillars are:
i. The base of the pillar is buried in the ground
ii. The shaft or column is made of one piece of stone supporting a capital
Q21. What is a stupa? To which school of art does the Sanchi stupa belong?
Ans: Stupa is a large hemispherical dome. The Sanchi Stupa belonged to the Sunga School of Art.
Q22. Mention any two features of the lion capital of the Sarnath Pillar.
Ans: The two features of the lion capital of the Sarnath Pillar are:
i. Figures of four lions standing back to back and smaller figures of animals in the relief on the abacus
ii. The abacus has four wheels of law or Dharma Chakra symbolising the message of Buddha to the four sides of the world
Q23. Name two important places in north India where the life-size statues of Buddha were sculpted.
Ans: Mathura and Gandhara are the two important places in north India where the life- size statues of Buddha were sculpted.
Q24. Mention any two features of the Gandhara School of Art.
Ans: The two features of the Gandhara School of Art are:
i. Images were moulded in a realistic manner with great attention to the accuracy of physical details
ii. Thick drapery with thick and bold fold lines