Important terms those are frequently used in microbiology are listed below:
A phylogenetic domain of prokaryotes consisting of the methanogens (Methane producers), most extreme halophiles and hyperthermophiles. Considered to the most primitive organisms.
Cigar shaped structures enclosed by a nonunit membrane and containing the light harvesting bacterio- chlorophyll in green sulfur bacteria and in chloroflexus.
Use of micro organisms to remove or detoxify toxic or unwanted chemicals in an environment. Bio remediation is seen as an alternative to ward off the harmful effects of oil spills.
In industrial microbiology, use of microorganisms to convert a substance to a chemically modified form. In this process an economically low value substance will be added with extra value.
Agents produced by certain bacteria that inhibit or kill closely related species. They are useful in competing with related species in a nutrient deficient environment. Generally it is controlled by the plasmid.
A substance that causes the initiation of tumor formation. Itjs frequetly a mutagen. Many pestisides and other chemicals are found to be carcinogens.
An organism that has developed a nutritional requirement through mutation. Useful as a marker in biochemical and physiological studies.
8. Signature sequences:
Short oligonucleotides of defined sequence in 16S or 18S rRNA characteristic of specific organisms or a group of phylogenetically related organisms.
Catabolic reaction producing ATP in which organic compounds serve as both primary electron donor and ultimate electron acceptor and ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation. Most useful bacterial process in a commercial sense.
A differentiated cell formed within the cells of certain gram positive bacteria that are extremely resistant to heat well as to other harmful agents.
The fusion of an immortal cell with a lymphocyte to produce an immortal lymphocyte. Infection thread
In the formation of root nodules, a cellulosic tube through which Rhizobium cells can travel to reach and infect root cells.
A process using mild heat to reduce the licrobial level in heat-sensitive materials. It is of 2 types. High temperature short time (HTST) – 72° C for 15 seconds.
Low temperature longtime (LTLT) 62.8°C for 30 minutes. Used for milk and beer preparation.
An infections agent whose extra cellular from may not contain nucleic acid. Only low molecular weight protein is found. Responsible for Mad cow disease in cattle, kuru disease in man.
The state of the genome of a template virus when it is replicating in synchrony with that of the host, typically intergrated into the hot genome.
15. Polyhydroxy butyrate:
A common storage material of bacteria consisting of a polymer of B-hydroxy butyrate or p -alkanoic acid. Useful as biodegradable plastic. Ricekettsia
Obligate intracellular parasites that cause variety of diseases like Typhus and Rocky maintain spotted fever. It is a kind of bacteria.
A small RNA molecule with virus like properties causes some diseases in plants.