Main reasons for population growth
Two important factors for the growth of population in any country are (a) Natural increase of births over deaths, (b) Net migration which is caused due to excess of immigration over emigration.
The main reason for rapid growth in population of India is excess of birth rate over death rate. During the decade 1971-81 the average birth rate was 36-37 per thousand and death rate 14-15 per thousand.
The following table illustrates the Birth Rate, Death Rate, and Natural Growth Rate of population since 1901.
Crude Birth Rate:
Number of live births in a year per thousand midyear population.
Crude Death Rate:
Number of deaths in a year per thousand mid-year populations.
Natural Growth Rate:
Excess of Crude Birth Rate over Crude Death Rate.
There are several reasons for the growing population. First of all, India is an agricultural country. About 80% of its citizens live in villages.
Most of them are illiterate. Being uneducated, they do not know the consequences of giving birth to more and more children. There has speed decline in the death rate due to better health services.
Most of them continue to be superstitious. They believe that it is because of God’s grace that children take birth in their families.
Whereas the fact is that it is in the hand of man himself. If someone wants to have a small family he can do so. There is no such thing that children will automatically take birth.
Second most important reason for the growth of population is poverty. Most of the citizens poor and they do not have any other source of entertainment or relaxation – they indulge in sex more frequently. This results in the growth of their family.
In India child marriage is still in fashion. In villages marriages take place when boys and girls are still in childhood. Early marries lead to early child births.
Some illiterate poor labourers think that if there are more people in the family their income would be more.
So instead of planning the family they give birth to more and more children. But they do not know that there is already so much unemployment that the growing population will make situation all the more worse.
The Government has realized the fact that population should be controlled. With this view our government has started many programmes.
They include educating the masses about the urgency to control population, providing free counsel with regard to measures of birth control.
Free facilities for sterilization are provided. In addition, cash prizes are given to those who go in for operations for birth control.