438 words essay on Population Problem in India

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Free sample essay on Population Problem in India. The population problem is one of the burning issues being faced by the country. It surmounts all the problems of the country. The rapid population growth is often referred to as population explosion.

The population of India has risen dramatically during the post-independence period. The increase in population is due to the spread of health care facilities thus resulting in the fall of death rate. Within a period of a little over half century, population of India has tripled to cross one billion marks. It is predicted to surpass China by 2030 to become the highly populated country in the world.

The unprecedented population growth has contributed too many problems such as poverty, unemployment, food problem, housing, clothing which are the basic necessities of life. These things are directly related to the quality of life. The rising population has outpaced all the development and technological gains. It has nullified all our achievements in the field of industrialisation. Despite all the progress made even one-fourth of India’s population is still living below poverty line. Even they do not have the bare necessities of life available to them. Millions of people have to go to bed without food. Starvation death is frequent in India despite being self-reliant in food production.

Population growth is witnessing geometrical progression. The resources of subsistence are increasing in arithmetical progression. India has to accommodate sixteen per cent of total world population in 2.3 per cent of total land. The pace of our population growth is horrifying. Forty-four children take birth every minute. Our population is rising by 2.9 per cent per year. Thus every year an extra 26 million people are added to the existing population. Availability of better food, better hygiene and above all modern facilities in medicines, surgery and health care have caused longevity and decline in the rate of mortality. It has further aggravated our population problem.

The government is taking stern measures to check the Population. It has started the family planning as early as immediately after the independence. It was the first country to introduce family planning. But the programme failed to bring desired result. So it is the need of the hour to realise the menace of population growth. Our society needs to be made aware of its dangers. The NGOs and media should come forward to create awareness in terms of population growth. We as aware citizens should change our mindset. Failure to check further increase in population may have disastrous effects. A mass awareness programme should be launched through radio, TV and other press media. The masses should be properly educated to the advantages of family planning.

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One Response to 438 words essay on Population Problem in India

  1. Rahoit July 10, 2012 at 7:27 pm #

    Populations increase because of natality. Natality is equivalent to birth rate and is an expression of the production of new indivi­dual (viz., reproduction) in the population by birth, hatching, ger­mination, or fission. At this stage, two aspects of reproduction namely fertility and fecundity must be distinguished.

    The fundamen­tal notion of fertility is an actual level of performance in the popu­lation based on the numbers born while fecundity is the potential level of performance (or physical capacity) of the population (Krebs, 1972).

    For example, the fertility rate for an actual human population may be only one birth per 8 years per female in the child-bearing ages, whereas the fecundity rate for humans is one birth per 9 to 11 months per female in the child bearing age.

    Natality rate may be expressed as the number of organisms born per female per unit time. The crude natality rate of population can be expressed as follows:

    Birth (Natality) rate (b) = number of births per unit time / average population

    Or b = dNn/Ndt

    Where, b = natality rate per unit time, d (or ∆) = entity that is changing, N = initial number of individuals in the population, Nn = number of new individuals added to the population by natality, t = time.

    The birth rate is the function of the density of the population. As a general rule, if the population density is unusually low, the birth rate is also low, because the probability of males and females finding each other to mate is small. If population density is unusually high, the birth rate may also be relatively low, because of inade­quate nutrition or the physiological or psychological aberrations associated with crowding.

    There is often an optimum density at which the birth rate is maximized. This is generally a relatively low density. Thus the potential, physiological, maximum or absolute natality is the theoretical maximum production of new individuals under ideal conditions.

    To attain this maximum, a species would exist under ideally optional ecological and genetic conditions. Ecological or realised natality refers to increase of population under given set of environmental conditions. It is not constant for a po­pulation but may vary with the size, composition and fecundity of a population.

    Fecundity:
    Species vary greatly in-the characteristic number of generations, broods or litters produced per year, and in the size of them. Protozoan’s often divide so rapidly that they produce a new generation every few hours. Plankton organisms, less fecund, may produce a new generation every few days.

    Many vertebrates breed but once a year, some large animals only once every two or three years. Seve­ral species of small birds and mammals have two or more broods per year. Rodents may continue to breed throughout the winter under favorable environmental conditions, so that their reproduc­tive potential is enormous.

    The maximum size of a litter is determined by the physiological and morphological characteristics of the species. In mammals, which produce viviparous young, the size of uterus and body cavity as well as the number of mammary glands for suckling the young after birth acts as limiting factors for the size of the litter?

    In birds there is a limit on the number of eggs that one individual can cover and successfully incubate. However in species that do not take care of their eggs after lying, the number produced may be limited only by the energy resources of the parent.

    The number of eggs or young produced per litter is correlated inversely with the amount of attention (viz., parental care) that they require. When parental care is altogether lacking, invertebrates may lay 1,000 to 500,000,000 eggs at one maturation; where there is some protection afforded by brood pouches, 100 to 1,000 eggs may be laid; with a high degree of brood protection, 1 to 10 or more eggs may be laid. Mammals seldom have more than a dozen young in a single litter and in larger species usually only one. Characteristic clutch size among birds varies from 1 to 15; rarely, 20.

    Further, there is a limit on the size of the brood or litter that adult warm-blooded animals can successfully feed and raise to maturity. There is no advantage, for example, for starlings to have broods larger than five. In those species that feed their young in the nest, the clutch size has evolved through natural selection to the greatest number that can be hatched and raised successfully through efforts of the adults (Lack, 1967).

    In those species whose young leave the nest and feed themselves at hatching, the clutch size depends in large part on the capability of the female to mobilize energy in her body to produce eggs of a particular size (Ryder, 1970). The variability in clutch and litter size for most species allows them to take advantage of temporarily improved conditions.

    The size of brood, litter or clutch is also regulated by weather. For example, the clutches laid by birds during periods of hot wea­ther are usually smaller than those laid when temperature is mode­rate (Kendeigh, 1941). Clutches laid by related species in temperate latitudes tends to be larger than those laid in tropics. Likewise, the fecundity of white-tailed deer is higher with good forage than with poor forage. The reproduction is generally more successful after periods of high mortality than during years of abundance.

    Among plants the emphasis is generally laid on the reproduc­tive capacity which is the number of individuals that can be raised from each parent individual after successful germination of the seeds.