Short Biography of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam: The Scientist- Philosopher President of India & His Powers

 

Abul Pakir Jainul Abideen Abdul Kalam popularly known as Missile Man is the President of India. The nation knows him as a nuclear scientist and the father of India’s successful missile programme.

As a defense scientist he got Bharat Ratna for his great success in Agni, Prathvi, Akash, Trishul and Nag missiles research. Our nation is proud of him because he brought fame to nation in missile power and challenging researches.

Dr. Kalam has the distinction of working with Indian scientists as Vikram Sarabhai and Santosh Dhawan from whom he got ideas and inspirations. The swearing-in ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhawan was notable for the fusion of thoughts of the scientist and the head of the State, who called for a national movement to empower people to be “poverty free, healthy and literate.”

A.P.J. Kalam was born in 1931 at Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu. He was the son of a little educated boat owner, named Jainulabedeen Ashiama. He always used to eat South Indian dish rice, sambhar and coconut chutney on banana leaf.

He did his schooling in Ramanathapuram district, for college he moved out of the district and studied in St. Joseph’s college in Triuchirapalli and did his diploma in Engineering from Indian Institute Technology, Chennai. He started his career with DRDO in 1958 and five year later went to ISRO where he became the Project Director of SLV.

He led India’s first satellite launch vehicle—’Rohini’ which successfully lifted in 1980. With this he realised that SLV technology could have military applications in the form of missile. He then became Programme Director to launch Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

In his 14 year work span as Director of Defence Research and Development Laboratory, he developed up Prithvi, Agni, Trishul, Akash and Nag. He completed the long delayed ‘Arjun’ tank project and also pushed ahead with an indigenous air craft engine ‘Kaveri’.

He is credited with designing state-of-the art warfare systems. Besides, the concept of reusable missile and evolving an item made of carbon-composite which can bear a temperature of 3500C and can be used in missile are his other achievements.

Before he became the President of India he received numerous awards including Padam Bhushan in 1981, Padam Vibhushan in 1990 and Bharat Ratan, the country’s highest civilian award, in 1997.

Dr. Kalam is confident that India can become self-reliant in Military Technology by year 2010. His ideas are no figment of imagination when we consider the following facts about him.

(1) He is one of those few technologists who strive to find multiple uses for what they create. He developed light weight calipers for the polio-affected out of the carbon material developed for Agni missile.

This material made the caliper one tenth of the original weight of four kilograms. It was a great experience to see how a composite material could be used to help the polio-affected.

(2) He feels an urgent need for good leadership and Government funding in the scientific area, laying greater stress on achieving result- oriented objectives by large scale promotion of scientific values among the masses.

(3) He does not favour the import of technology and encourages self- reliance in technology. He says “Haven’t we proved that we can do things with minimum foreign aid? All we need a determination and belief in ourselves.”

(4) He has tremendous faith in the youth of this country. He says, “We have many young people of high caliber. All that they need is a dream to choose and fulfill.

Besides being a scientist of high caliber, the president of India Dr. Abdul Kalam is also a poet and a lover of music. Although he has a very few leisure’s in his busy schedule. He is also fond of playing on Veena. He is a scientist who thinks, dreams, lives and breathes science. Also earlier the greatness of the man is also his simplicity despite having many achievements and honours to his credits.

Dr. Kalam is down to earth, unassuming and sentimental person. One instance reflecting this quality in him is when somebody asked him when he became the president of India, “What would he have been if he was not a scientist” He said laughing “I would probably be farming in a small piece of land in Rameshwaram.”

We are proud to have such a great president who enthuses us and champions the cause for the exceptional work of advancement of science and public service of the highest order.

The ‘Missile Man’ rose from his humble background to become the jewel in nation’s crown and made missiles for the country thereby making India member of the exclusive club of nuclear powers in the world.

His journey from Madurai based Anna Universities to the Rashtrapati Bhavan in Delhi, is a feat which even an Olympian gold medalist Pole Vaulted could never have dreamt of.

Kalam has the quality of being diligently committed to his mission. He feared love and shunned friends, who tried to be closed, fearing it would become a heavy block in his way of fulfilling his mission of nuclear sing India Thus he decided not to marry.

After being the president of the largest democracy of the world, perhaps none can have any aspiration left, but Kalam has, of opening a school for the poor children in Rameshwaram. Dr. Kalam says, “If you want to leave your foot prints on the sand of the time do not drag your feet.” ‘Great dreams and Great dreamers are always rewarded with victory.’

“As a young citizen of India armed with technology, knowledge and love for my nation, ! Realise small aim a crime”

Thoughts of Kalam

Kalam justifies India having nuclear weapon with his favourite slogan “strength respects strength”. He says why we worry about the few nuclear bombs India may have why not talk about the 10,000 nuclear warheads across the Atlantic. His co-workers think it is this philosophical bent of mind that has helped Kalam master the art of building consensus.

He always aims high. The man, still overwhelmed by the realisation, somebody with humble origins like him can occupy the country’s highest office, is ecstatic at the wonderful vagaries of Indian polity when asked his reaction on being gifted with presidential post. “It feels fantastic” was all he could say gleefully to the waiting media persons, as the voting for the president’s post progressed at Parliament House.

He said “India Vision 2020 demands from the young that they start a great mission of connecting rivers cutting across the states”. He feels the young have the most powerful mission.”

I am convinced that peace, prosperity and happiness will come only by an integrated approach to national development through technology and traditional value system.

Have experienced He is berg’s statement “you know, in the west we have built a large beautiful ship, it has all the com­forts in it, but one thing is missing, it has no compass and does not know where to go.

Men like Tagore and Gandhi and spiritual forbearers found the compass why can this compass not be put in the human ship so that both may realise their purpose.” President’s Powers—Article 352,360

Powers:

All executive actions of the Union Government are taken in President’s name. He is supreme commander of Indians armed forces. All important officers including Prime Minister, members of council of ministers judges of Supreme Court and High Court of State and Auditor General of India are appointed by him.

Legislative Powers:

The President summons and prorogues the two houses and can dissolve the Lok Sabha. He nominates 2 members of Anglo- Indian community. All the bills passed by Parliament must receive his assent before they become law. When the Parliament is not in session, he enacts law through ordinances which must be approved by the Parliament within six months of its reassembly.

A money bill can be introduced in Parliament only with President’s prior permission. He also appoints finance commission every five years to recommend distribution of taxes between the Union and State Governments. The President appoints the Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.

He can grant pardon, reprieve, respite or remission of punishment or commute the sentence of any person punished under the Union Law.

The Constitution also vests extraordinary power with the President to deal with emergencies due to (a) war, external aggression and armed rebellion; failure of constitutional machinery in the state (b) threat to financial stability and credit of the country.

The President is the supreme commander of Indian Armed Forces and he has power to declare war and peace. Regarding diplomatic powers he sends ambassadors to foreign countries and receives their diplomats. All international agreements are concluded on his behalf which are however, subject to satisfaction by the President.

Position:

Though after 42nd Amendment it became obligatory for the President to act according to the advice of council of ministers headed by the Prime Minister. There are certain provisions in the constitution which make his presence felt. Under Art 78 he has a right to be informed about the affairs of the Union.

He has a right to address either house or their joint sitting and to require the attendance for this purpose (Art 86). He also has the power of sending messages to either house.

The President can assent also a non-money bill when it is passed by both houses. With or without changes the President is bound to give his assent to it.

Emergency Powers of the President under Various Articles:

The National Emergency—Article 352

The State Emergency—Article 356

Financial Emergency—Article 360. How the President is elected?

The President is elected indirectly by the members of an electoral college consisting of?

(i) Elected members of both houses of parliament

(ii) Elected members of Legislative Assembles of states (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry).

Nominated members of either house of Parliament and state assemblies are not eligible to be included in the Electoral College.

The total members in the Electoral College are 4,896. The break up is as follows:

(a) Rajya Sabha 233

(b) Lok Sabha 543

(3) State Assemblies 4120

Total 4896

The constitution stipulates uniformity, as far as practicable in the scale of representation of the different states. For securing uniformity among states as well as a party between the states as a whole and the Union, a formula is given for determination of the value of vote which each elected MP or MLA is entitled to cast. The formula is as follows.

Value of Votes—Each MLA’s vote is calculated on the basis

Value of one MLA’s vote = ______ State Population

1000 X No. of State MLAs

Illustration:

Total population of Andhra Pradesh (1971 census) = Total No. of elected seats in the assembly =

Value of each MLAs vote =

Total value of votes for Andhra

Each MP’s value is calculated on the basis:

Total Vote Value of All MLAs = Value of one MP’s Vote

Total numbers of members of Parliament

The election is held under a system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote conducted by a secret ballot.

Dr. Kalam was elected the president of India from 25th July 2002 to 24th July, 2007. We cannot remove him from our hearts. When the tech­nical development in the scope of Defence Science would be considered Dr. Kalam also would be remembered that time. Dr. Kaiam has been a President with difference.

He thinks about the development to entire country. He dreams the country as a superpower inspire of being no Presi­dent presently.

We can say that the heart of Dr. Kalam is full of pain and woes of pours and debarred people and we can say confidently that Dr. Kalam would remain the President of the hearts of Indians till there are sun and moon in the sky.

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