# What are Known As Iso-Product Curve or Isoquants? – Explained!

Given a production function for a certain output, one can derive isoquant showing all the combinations of the factors of production that yield the same level of output. This is done by substituting the value of output in the production function and by getting different values of one factor for different values of another factor.

Isoquants or equal-product or iso-product curves are analogous to the indifference curves of the consumer theory. An isoquant is one of the ways of presenting production, where the two factors of production are explicitly shown. It represents all possible input combinations (input ratios) of the two factors, which are capable of producing the same level of output. Thus, input ratio keeps on changing along an isoquant.

As producer would be indifferent between such combinations, so it is often referred to as the producer’s indifference curve or production indifference curve. All combinations yielding the same level of output lie on the same iso-product curve or production indifference curve. It is a contour line showing the points of equal production on a map showing production as its dimensions.

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In the words of Keirstead, “Iso-product curve represents all possible combinations of the two factors that will give the same total product”. According to K.J. Cohen and R.M. Cyert, “An iso-product curve is a curve along which the maximum achievable production is constant”.

Iso-product curve analysis helps a producer to find a combination of two factors, which gives him maximum output at the minimum cost. In other words, this analysis solves the problem of optimum combination of factors.

Various factor combinations ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘E’ producing the same level of output, say 100 units are shown in the following Fig. 7.2 in the form of isoquant IQ. These points depict different techniques of production.