Human activities of industrialization, over population and urbanization are leading to a number of environmental impacts like global warming. Due to these, the weather conditions are changing, and hence, the climate of the planet is also changing. Seasons are not so seasonal anymore and therefore, the ecosystems along with the climate are changing.
Earlier, climate change referred to changes in the climate due to natural causes, but, now it refers to climate change due to man-made causes. Climate changes were noticed in the 1900s after the era of industrialization. Scientists predict that over the coming decades, these climatic changes due to human causes will worsen.
Global warming is seen to be the biggest cause of climate change. The greenhouse gases that do not allow infrared radiations to exit the environment cause warming up of the entire planet. This causes various changes in the climate. If we keep burning fossil fuels at a fast pace, it will lead to extra emissions of carbon dioxide.
Climate change will affect humans as well as plants and animals. As the sea level rises and the movements of the winds, tides and clouds change, it will impact the world’s environment. This will result in heavy rainfall in some parts of the world and drought in other parts.
These climate changes will have a direct impact on agriculture, particularly in India. If seasons change, farmers will not be able to plan their activities related to agriculture. Crop production will be affected and there will be severe shortage of food. If the climate change is very fast, plants might not be able to adapt, leading to extinction of species.
The level of the sea is also rising due to climatic changes as the water expands when it is heated. The water from the melted ice caps also raises the sea level. Due to the rising sea level, people from coastal regions will have to migrate. This will lead to problems related to mass exodus, like unemployment and shortage of food.
Warming of the waters due to climate change will also harm the coral reefs. Aquatic plants and animals will also be affected if heating and cooling of water is so variable. Coastal erosion, especially of low lying areas, could also lead to economic losses as well as extinction of other species. A particularly worrying effect of global warming in terms of the sea is the change of ocean currents. This is said to have caused the extinction of many species and destruction of various ecosystems in the past.
Apart from fossil fuel combustion (of oil, coal and natural gas), deforestation, growth of rice paddies, coal mines and landfills also produce greenhouse gases like methane. Fertalizer also lead to increase of nitrous oxide in the air.